1981 IBM PC beginning of Intel/Microsoft duopoly.
Back then how do you make the personal computing experience mobile?
Osborne 1 tiny display. First portable computer. Not long term, but sold quite a few.
Grid Systems Jeff worked there Grid Compass first laptop computer. Flat panel display, hinged over keyboard, integrated 1200 baud modem. Problems very expensive - $8000, proprietary OS.
Compaq PC compatibility was key. Very heavy, not so portable. Successful compatible, reasonably priced.
Other types lunchbox computers. Laptop became dominant, e.g. Compaq LTE.
Some wanted to produce something even smaller and more mobile.
1989 Gridpad first tablet computer. Stylus, no keyboard. PC compatible (DOS), graphical UI, focus on vertical markets (insurance, delivery people, doctors) who fill out forms.
Go 1991 PenPoint operating system code name Lombard never released. Licensed their OS. Targeted mainstream computing, had spreadsheets, WP, other software written. Also raised the attention of Microsoft developed Windows for Pen Computing many companies manufactured head to head with Go. Microsoft was right didnt need a second OS, but also didnt need Pen Windows. All failed.
Psion Organizer series no presence in North America. We didnt pay attention. Sharp Zaurus. HP 100LX. Psion especially was successful. All keyboard based, but we were fixated on pen.
Apple Newton great success for a short time 100,000 in first quarter, then stopped. Was incomplete, the Edsel of the computer industry. People were not deterred.
Apple engineers left, created General Magic MagicCap OS was desk metaphor on a mobile system. Sony, AT&T, Motorola built products. Network wasnt ready.
MS rolled out WinPad didnt bring it to market because General Magic had already failed.
MS Bob another failure.
Windows CE chiclet keyboard, folding screen. Lined up companies to build (same ones every time )
Windows hard to read, slow, cumbersome UI for small screen. Productivity apps didnt work.
1996 Palm Pilot introduced very small, very inexpensive, simplistic applications, easy to use, connectivity focus (synchronizing with PC). Were just an accessory MS left them alone.
After they were successful, MS repositioned CE no keyboard. Ballmer at development conference targeted the Palm.
Many apps voice recording, one handed operation. Not very good, still hard to read on black and white screen, poor synchronization. All failed.
What does Palm do? Cant compete with MS. How to do? Build hardware, since MS doesnt. Designed the Palm V. Brushed metal case, non-removable LiIon battery, case glued shut. Great success.
Insisted no new features on product. If no new features, analysts cant do a features comparison chart. Successful.
MS auto PC cant build mobile devices with Windows, so put Windows on things that already move.
PocketPC was originally called PalmPC sued them in France, where Pilot Pen sued Palm.
MS finally got it right. Good display, fast processor, better UI.
When Apple introduced the Mac Portable too heavy. Finally introduced Powerbook. Instant hit pent-up demand. PocketPC had pent up demand people waiting for a Windows handheld finally could buy one that worked.
Upshot: PC and laptop havent changed dramatically in 20 years. Innovation has been in handheld and mobile area.
Railroads thought they were in the railroad business, not the transportation business. We have to avoid thinking of mobile devices as the PC industry.
Most successful mobile computing device of all time? The cell phone. 1 billion users worldwide today one person of every six.
Another successful one the pager. Tens of millions being used.
Third handheld (Palm, Handspring, Sharp, PPC)
What made these products successful? Four reasons:
On Handspring road show Woman approached her - Nokia phone, RIM pager, Handspring Visor tired of carrying all of them. Can Jeff help? Build one device that combines all three.
Started developing the Treo.
Attributes: fairly small (actually, tiny looks like about 2x3 inches.)
Has stylus need one for some things, even though they tried to eliminate it.
Integrated cellular radio for voice and data.
Power switch, IR port.
Single button to mute all sounds. Can vibrate if you want it to. Should have done it a long time ago.
Headphone jack, jog switch for functions.
Phone app address book disappears into it.
Messaging SMS by default, can be email.
Lid contains speaker for ear and speaker phone. Also protects it. Needs no case. Answer by opening the lid. Lid is transparent so caller ID is visible on screen.
QWERTY keyboard for creating messages. Better than Graffiti, and he invented Graffiti.
Keyboard is great way to dial the phone. Start entering name, it will dial number when recognized. Or numeric keypad.
Will sell two versions keyboard and Graffiti.
Color and B&W color will follow after 3 months, in March or April.
Demo Intro Rob Itani(?), leading UI expert.
One touch speed dial dialing. If not on speed dial list, will recognize names from contact list. Also first initial and last name will give quickest match love to design for impatient people.
Can select which of the persons numbers to call.
Can interact with any program on the device when on the call.
Browser application speed dial for bookmarks. Handspring compresses and reformats any page for the screen on their proxy server.
Treo is designed for one-handed operation.
SMS expects the full keyboard will promote the use of SMS more than the 10-key keypad.
Can place people on hold do conference calls.
Call waiting supported can bring a fourth people in on the conference call.
Communicators will get smaller even smaller than the Treo. Challenge of the UI his observation is that if you make things smaller they get better.
Casio Zoomer contemporary to Newton tap on tabs like a Rolodex multiple taps to get to an entry.
Palm even smaller display 1/3 of pixel area made it better. First and last name, phone number on index display, no tabs because no room. Forced to let people write to find a name.
Treo that wouldnt work. Font too big. One line for name, one for each phone number.
One hand, more information at one time. Like remodeling a house forced to get clever.
Web browsing dont need all the clutter. Want one button access to each info service news, weather. Quicker than conventional drill-down.
Wireless applications streaming audio/video, location based services security is the big problem. Multiple devices, connected to cell network. Few programmable devices on these networks before they havent been tested.
Worse all carrier networks attached to the Internet. Every device is a persistently connected server, has potential to create havoc on the network.
No current hardware or software platforms can address this.
Ubiquity everything will have a radio access to wireless will be free. E.g. long distance land line cost has dropped dramatically. Cellular call cost has also dropped.
What is the cost of servicing the customer? Cost of building the infrastructure (poles and wires) already amortized. Cellular infrastructure will eventually be amortized too. Billing customer has a cost. Cost of servicing each call is essentially zero. This, along with higher bandwidth, is an enabling technology for freedom and democracy.